General Information About roofing, windows and insulation


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General Information About roofing, windows and insulation

Roofing - General Information

The choice of roofing may be affected:

- Slope of the roof, the roof is tighter flatter the roof sheathing must be applied,

- The complexity of the roof, for example, in the project of "buffalo eyes," we can not use ordinary ceramic tile, it is necessary to trim the fine structure, which can be formed as precisely as possible,

- Climatic conditions and colors, sometimes eg spatial planning determines the visual order of the region.

Please note that manufacturers often quote prices underroofs tiles per square meter excluding trim such as ridge tiles, strips platforms, tile eaves, edge, chimneys, vents, gutters. In addition to the price of roof generally do not include a flange / treatment chimneys, possible to insert and seal roof windows, roof access window and benches chimney (needed for the maintenance of chimneys).


There are several types underroofs:

- Ceramic tile at the top in the shape of the so-called. carp (teardrop) and esówki (corrugated roof). Durability over 100 years, high strength, sound insulation, fire resistance, freezing temperatures, UV-protection. It does not require significant maintenance, for use on the roofs of 15-50 ˚. Weight 45-80 kg/m2, the main raw material is clay.

- Tile cement. The delusions may resemble ceramic tiles, the overall properties are slightly worse. For use on roofs with pitches 22-65 ˚. Weight 35-50 kg/m2. Its main ingredient is cement and water.

- Tile bituminous. Very flexible, ideal for complex, undulating roofs. He also performs with various posypkami imitate such shingle. Very light, for use on roofs with pitches 12-80 ˚. For more flat roofs, the relevant membrane sealing / priming.

- Roofing sheet. The market is a wide range of different roof with tin plating. Proste sheet metal are usually the least expensive option, while the weakest thermal insulation, acoustic or mechanical. A sensible solution is metal roofing tile with granite aggregates such as simulating a shingle. For this type of cover manufacturers even offer 50 years warranty.

- Thatch. The average thickness of the roof made of reeds to 28-40cm. Roof angle must be no less than 40 ˚. The significance of such plating is quite significant because 50-75 kg/m2. The main advantage of thatch is very good thermal and sound insulation. Water penetrates into the structure of the 5 cm. It is necessary to impregnate proofing every three years.

- Wooden shingles, deszczółka. Relatively lightweight plating for roofs with a slope exceeding 22 ˚. However, require regular maintenance shingle is a good option for "demanding", corrugated roofs.

-Shale mineral. Made of layered sedimentary rock roofing is the most durable of all possible roof. Small size allows for complex odpasowanie slope. Shale minerals are a good protection against the weather.


Windows and Doors – general information

Most (99% of investors) to choose log houses, wooden windows. The choice is usually a window with Sony on the micro slings (have good technical parameters of price) with sony solid, mahogany or oak. When ordering, are given basic information such as:




-Directions for opening,

-Functionality (eg tilt, with a mobile or fixed-pillars)

-Ew. transoms, shutters, window sills,

-Type blades (for resistance to burglary)

-Type of hardware (for resistance to burglary)

There are several types of rungs:

-Inside the shaft, mounted between the panes, on the stage of consolidation of the chamber, does not hinder cleaning windows,

-Vienna, glued, creates a frame for the glass, gives a very nice visual effect,

-Construction, features similar to szprosu Vienna, with the glass that divides through providing the opportunity to exchange a small item such as in the case of breakage,

-Ramkowy - Venetian, opened cancers outside the house, give the effect of "bump" the window frame and the ability to open and easy to wash windows.

The most commonly used are the mullions Vienna, stuck. Rate their performance is dependent on the number of fields that form, it is generally further 10-15% of the contract value.

Another option is security solutions

- Glass of resistance to breakage P2 or P4 priced individually by request. A sample of the test window (P4) is located at, or compare the P2 and P4

- Fittings Burglar class WK1 and WK2. Make it difficult to balance ream window or door handles.

The application of these solutions will cost about 30-40% of the contract.


- Latch balcony, an interesting solution is to lock balcony (about 40 zł / pcs.), Which closes the doors from the outside and the entrance using a special handle. Going to the balcony / terrace in winter do not cool down the interior. Handle only works when the window is opened from the inside.

- The brake in the handle, to lock the window in the open position, regardless of drafts or winds. The cost is approximately 70zł/szt.

- Ventilation: manual, pressure and humidity sensitive. Provides a controlled supply of fresh air into the house. Sometimes it is sufficient micro ventilation usually installed in the windows as standard.

Acceptance of the contract shall be signed on the basis of the production order in which windows are visualized and described functions.

Roof windows

Please note that the selection of roof windows associated with the determination of the flanges to be followed. There are mainly three types of flanges for flat roofs, corrugated and universal.

Entrance doors

Doors shall comply with all safety standards set out in building approvals. Equipped with the right amount and type of hardware required for a specific product, determine considerations destination, and securing the premises in order to most effectively fulfill its role. Entrance doors are equipped with three reinforced hinges and two locks (insert) meeting the requirements of security against unauthorized opening. The castle is synchronized with the bolts in the four points that anchor when you close the door frame. The doors have a thermal pad meets the additional function damping and insulating. If you use glass glazing is fitted with a high-class resistance to breakage P4. 68mm wide doors can be assumed that the heat transfer rate hovers around U = 1.0. Applied appropriate seals (in two places along the contour) that are not subject to weather conditions effectively suppress background noise and insulate well in terms of temperature. The frame is made of the same material as the door. Is suitably mounted in a respective pins to the wall of a previously prepared. The doors are painted colors on request of the Investor, paints resistant to weather conditions.

Analyzing the products of other manufacturers, please note that eg oak doors in the middle do not have another material such as plate. Oak wood is not cheap, so manufacturers often seek savings in areas not visible to the Investor.

Please note that solicited door to secure such as cardboard and stretch film. Another team from the finish no matter how you may try to scratch.

Types of Insulation - General Information


Value for money technical parameters of causes that is the most common insulating material in construction.

98% of the volume of air is "locked in fine pores, so that the heat conductivity coefficient is 0,045-0,031 W / (mK). Practically does not absorb moisture, so it is used, inter alia, for the isolation of the house is exposed to moisture. Foam is resistant to biological, does not burn and melt and chars. Helpful when performing decorative ornaments facade. The density is dependent on the degree of foaming. The denser the more durable. Marking EPS 50 is assigned to the polystyrene panels soft and light. Apply in places where there will be exposed to mechanical stress. The higher the number the designation EPS eg 250 the plate and durable for use in very demanding.

In addition, there are the so-called. corrugated board, waterproof and roofing paper. The former have grooves to allow the free flow of air between the polystyrene and construction material. Panels made of waterproof material polystyrene is hydrophobic yet have lower water absorption than the standard ones. Paved with asphalt slabs allow for tight (tab) to insulate such as foundations or flat roofs.

Mineral Wool

It has good heat insulation for thermal conductivity = 0,045-0,032 W / (mK), in terms of acoustics and fire resistance. Mineral wool must be protected from moisture vapor barrier or by using the so-called. expansion joints allow moisture mouth. Wet wool loses its properties. This material is available in several forms:

-As a plate, just like polystyrene is of different density and thus the hardness depending on the area of ​​application,

-As a mat,

-As pellets, loose scraps sold in bags to isolate the hard to reach areas, using specialized equipment,

-Lagging, used as thermal and acoustic insulation of pipes.

Extruded polystyrene

It has better insulating properties of the polystyrene, however, is less popular because of the price. Polystyrene is harder than styrofoam, is less absorbable and has a better thermal conductivity of 0,042-0,029 W / (mK). Good at insulating the foundation. It is easy to tell them apart, most are blue, green, pink or yellow.

Foam Poliuretnaowa:

It is characterized by very good insulating properties - 0.027 - 0.020 W / (mK). It applies to both external and internal parts of the house. Superimposed on the inside does not age, and does not disappear as it happens with Styrofoam. The so-called. without grouting insulation spray applied as a uniform mass solidifies thus avoiding thermal bridges. Its installation is very short because about 1-2 days, which significantly reduces the so-called. the human cost. In addition, adheres to most materials and is steam permeable. Using polyurethane foam open-cell gain more space at home (5 cm foam replaces 10cm wool) we have a more energy efficient home, we reduce the cost of human labor.


Ceramic, light and porous granules of very good thermal and acoustic insulation. Kermazyt is resistant to fire, low temperature, mold and mildew, and is highly absorbable (impregnated in general does not absorb). Thermal conductivity of the pellets is 0.10 W / (mK)

The cellulose fibers

Made from recycled newspaper. No need for wind and steam isolation. Cellulose fibers are used below ground level, as it can "drink" water. Coefficient of thermal conductivity at the level of 0.042 - 0.040 W / (mK). This material accumulates heat and gives them late (so-called heat buffer). Well insulate sound and has good fire resistance.


Use a good hydro-insulation of the foundation of the house to prevent the entry of unwanted moisture / water to the house.

On the market are:

- Flat Films

- Embossed Foil (supports proper waterproofing)

- Bitumen

- Papy (triple layer of protection against water)

Recovery - general

Simply put it is a very efficient heat recovery home that normally escapes through vents. The system heats the air entering the heat that comes out. This setup eliminates the ventilation standard - gravity.


- The lowest inertia of the system (that is, only heat the air and building heating time is much shorter and more economical than traditional heating)

- Uptime

- Control of dust and humidity

- Lowering operating costs by up to 50%.

- Maximum comfort (winter heating and summer economy free natural cooling)

- Lack of water in the system

- The ability to connect the system with a fireplace and heat pump

- Create a home for allergy friendly (no pollen and allergens)

- Lack of moisture and fungus in the bathroom.

Implementation of the entire system 3-4 days.

The energy consumption of about 70 WAT (as much as a light bulb), the maximum speed to 150 deductible.

The real savings in heating 20-30%, can up to 50%.

Application windows sealed without the so-called max. micro-ventilation.


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